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The effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a high-affinity agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-2 (TRPV2) channel, has been poorly investigated in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMEC) forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB). TRPV2 expression and its role on Ca2+ cellular dynamics, trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), cell viability and growth, migration, and tubulogenesis were evaluated in human primary cultures of BMEC (hPBMEC) or in the human cerebral microvessel endothelial hCMEC/D3 cell line. Abundant TRPV2 expression was measured in hCMEC/D3 and hPBMEC by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, nontargeted proteomics, and cellular immunofluorescence studies. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were increased by heat and CBD and blocked by the nonspecific TRP antagonist ruthenium red (RR) and the selective TRPV2 inhibitor tranilast (TNL) or by silencing cells with TRPV2 siRNA. CBD dose-dependently induced the hCMEC/D3 cell number (EC50 0.3 ± 0.1 μM), and this effect was fully abolished by TNL or TRPV2 siRNA. A wound healing assay showed that CBD induced cell migration, which was also inhibited by TNL or TRPV2 siRNA. Tubulogenesis of hCMEC/D3 cells in 3D matrigel cultures was significantly increased by 41 and 73% after a 7 or 24 h CBD treatment, respectively, and abolished by TNL. CBD also increased the TEER of hPBMEC monolayers cultured in transwell, and this was blocked by TNL. Our results show that CBD, at extracellular concentrations close to those observed in plasma of patients treated by CBD, induces proliferation, migration, tubulogenesis, and TEER increase in human brain endothelial cells, suggesting CBD might be a potent target for modulating the human BBB.
TRPV2; brain endothelial cells; cannabidiol; tranilast
We describe two patients with a confirmed diagnosis of high-grade gliomas (grades III/IV), both presenting with O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylated and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH-1) mutated who, after subtotal resection, were submitted to chemoradiation and followed by PCV, a multiple drug regimen (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) associated with cannabidiol (CBD). Both patients presented with satisfactory clinical and imaging responses at periodic evaluations. Immediately after chemoradiation therapy, one of the patients presented with an exacerbated and precocious pseudoprogression (PSD) assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was resolved in a short period. The other patient presented with a marked remission of altered areas compared with the post-operative scans as assessed by MRI. Such aspects are not commonly observed in patients only treated with conventional modalities. This observation might highlight the potential effect of CBD to increase PSD or improve chemoradiation responses that impact survival. Further investigation with more patients and critical molecular analyses should be performed.
PCV; THC-tetrahydrocannabinol; cancer; cannabidiol; cannabis; chemoradiation; high-grade glioma; pseudoprogression
Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the compounds present in the marijuana plant, has anti-tumor properties, but its mechanism is not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the apoptotic action of CBD in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, and focused on its effects on the novel pro-apoptotic Noxa-reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathway. CBD experiments were performed using the CRC cell lines HCT116 and DLD-1. CBD induced apoptosis by regulating many pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, of which Noxa showed significantly higher expression. To understand the relationship between Noxa and CBD-induced apoptosis, Noxa levels were downregulated using siRNA, and the expression of apoptosis markers decreased. After ROS production was blocked, the level of Noxa also decreased, suggesting that ROS is involved in the regulation of Noxa, which along with ROS is a well-known pro-apoptotic signaling agents. As a result, CBD induced apoptosis in a Noxa-and-ROS-dependent manner. Taken together, the results obtained in this study re-demonstrated the effects of CBD treatment in vivo, thus confirming its role as a novel, reliable anticancer drug.
Apoptotic cell death; Bcl-2 protein family; Colon cancer; Marijuana extract; ROS
In the last decades, a lot of attention has been paid to the compounds present in medicinal Cannabis sativa L., such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), and their effects on inflammation and cancer-related pain. The National CancerInstitute (NCI) currently recognizes medicinal C. sativa as an effective treatment for providing relief in a number of symptoms associated with cancer, including pain, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and anxiety. Several studies have described CBD as a multitarget molecule, acting as an adaptogen, and as a modulator, in different ways, depending on the type and location of disequilibrium both in the brain and in the body, mainly interacting with specific receptor proteins CB1 and CB2. CBD is present in both medicinal and fibre-type C. sativa plants, but, unlike Δ9-THC, it is completely nonpsychoactive. Fibre-type C. sativa (hemp) differs from medicinal C. sativa, since it contains only few levels of Δ9-THC and high levels of CBD and related nonpsychoactive compounds. In recent years, a number of preclinical researches have been focused on the role of CBD as an anticancer molecule, suggesting CBD (and CBD-like molecules present in the hemp extract) as a possible candidate for future clinical trials. CBD has been found to possess antioxidant activity in many studies, thus suggesting a possible role in the prevention of both neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In animal models, CBD has been shown to inhibit the progression of several cancer types. Moreover, it has been found that coadministration of CBD and Δ9-THC, followed by radiation therapy, causes an increase of autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. In addition, CBD is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to increase apoptosis in different types of cancer models. These activities seem to involve also alternative pathways, such as the interactions with TRPV and GRP55 receptor complexes. Moreover, the finding that the acidic precursor of CBD (cannabidiolic acid, CBDA) is able to inhibit the migration of breast cancer cells and to downregulate the proto-oncogene c-fos and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) highlights the possibility that CBDA might act on a common pathway of inflammation and cancer mechanisms, which might be responsible for its anticancer activity. In the light of all these findings, in this review we explore the effects and the molecular mechanisms of CBD on inflammation and cancer processes, highlighting also the role of minor cannabinoids and noncannabinoids constituents of Δ9-THC deprived hemp.
Worldwide medicinal use of cannabis is rapidly escalating, despite limited evidence of its efficacy from preclinical and clinical studies. Here we show that cannabidiol (CBD) effectively reduced seizures and autistic-like social deficits in a well-validated mouse genetic model of Dravet syndrome (DS), a severe childhood epilepsy disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the brain voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. The duration and severity of thermally induced seizures and the frequency of spontaneous seizures were substantially decreased. Treatment with lower doses of CBD also improved autistic-like social interaction deficits in DS mice. Phenotypic rescue was associated with restoration of the excitability of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, an important area for seizure propagation. Reduced excitability of dentate granule neurons in response to strong depolarizing stimuli was also observed. The beneficial effects of CBD on inhibitory neurotransmission were mimicked and occluded by an antagonist of GPR55, suggesting that therapeutic effects of CBD are mediated through this lipid-activated G protein-coupled receptor. Our results provide critical preclinical evidence supporting treatment of epilepsy and autistic-like behaviors linked to DS with CBD. We also introduce antagonism of GPR55 as a potential therapeutic approach by illustrating its beneficial effects in DS mice. Our study provides essential preclinical evidence needed to build a sound scientific basis for increased medicinal use of CBD.
Dravet syndrome; Scn1a; autism; cannabidiol; epilepsy
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid compound that is found in plants of the genus Cannabis. Preclinical research has suggested that CBD may have a beneficial effect in rodent models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This effect is believed to be due to the action of CBD on the endocannabinoid system. CBD has seen a recent surge in research regarding its potential value in a number of neuro-psychiatric conditions. This is the first study to date examining the clinical benefit of CBD for patients with PTSD.
This retrospective case series examines the effect of oral CBD administration on symptoms of PTSD in a series of 11 adult patients at an outpatient psychiatry clinic. CBD was given on an open-label, flexible dosing regimen to patients diagnosed with PTSD by a mental health professional. Patients also received routine psychiatric care, including concurrent treatment with psychiatric medications and psychotherapy. The length of the study was 8 weeks. PTSD symptom severity was assessed every 4 weeks by patient-completed PTSD Checklist for the DSM-5 (PCL-5) questionnaires.
From the total sample of 11 patients, 91% (n = 10) experienced a decrease in PTSD symptom severity, as evidenced by a lower PCL-5 score at 8 weeks than at their initial baseline. The mean total PCL-5 score decreased 28%, from a mean baseline score of 51.82 down to 37.14, after eight consecutive weeks of treatment with CBD. CBD was generally well tolerated, and no patients discontinued treatment due to side effects.
Administration of oral CBD in addition to routine psychiatric care was associated with PTSD symptom reduction in adults with PTSD. CBD also appeared to offer relief in a subset of patients who reported frequent nightmares as a symptom of their PTSD. Additional clinical investigation, including double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, would be necessary to further substantiate the response to CBD that was observed in this study.
PTSD; anxiety; cannabidiol; cannabis; nightmares; post-traumatic stress disorder
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